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Vol. XIV 

JUNE 1, 1923. 



From Painting bv Waher Ufer 





The Well of the Maya's Human Sacripice 


"W/'ITHIN the year the Peabody Mu- 
seum of Harvard Lniversity vvill an- 
nounce ofíicially the íinding of the Maya 
treasure at the bottom of the sacred well 
at Chichen-Itza. 

The discover\', although admitíed to 
be the most important in the history of 
American archaeology, has been a care- 
fully guarded secret for over a decade. 
Exactly how much iight it uill throw up- 
en ene of civilizations mostobscure paths 
is a question that must remain unans- 
wered untd Piofessor Herbert J. Spinden 
and Professor A. M. Tozzer publish 
their erudite commentary. For the pres- 
ent \ve only know that a quantity of pre- 
cious material and an astoundingly vveird 
romance has been reclaimed from the ev- 
er recedmg past. 

But there is the romance that science 
p'irsues. and there is the one lived in the 
pursuit! And the "unoíficial ' announce- 
ment of the recovery of human bones, 
gold ornaments and objects of jade, cop- 
per and wood from the depth of the sa- 
cred well, or the "Cenote de los Sacrifi- 
cios, " mvolves a worthy sequel to the 
weird story that the worid had forgotten. 

During a recent visit to Yucatán 1 lis- 
tened to this story as told by the discov- 
erer himse'f. He is Edward H. Thomp- 
son, former United States Cónsul at Me- 
rida, and affectionately known throughout 
southeastern México as "Don Eduardo." 
I met him m the ruined city of the van- 
ished Itzaes, where he has lived formany 
years. His big rambling hacienda house 
stands almost in the shadow of Chichen- 
Itza's marvelous monuments, and the sa- 
cred cenote is less than half a mile dis- 

"I consider the most important find 

made by me in regard to the 'cenote sa- 
grado, to be the fact that it was a sacred 
well, aud a very sacred one, and actual- 
ly a place of sacrifice, as many eminent 
scientists either doubled or denied." 

As he spoke our "Fortmga, ' or Ford, 
reached the end of the Sacred Way, the 
ancient macadamized causeway leading 
from the base of the huge "Castillo" pyr- 
amid for 300 yards. Before us, with 
startling abruptness, the sacred cenote 
opened its wide, cavernous mouth. 
There was an uncanny note m the per- 
fect symmetrj and striking contrasts of 
this pool of palé and lusterless green wa- 
ter. Tall dark trees completely encir- 
cled its rim, emphasizing the dazzling 
whiteness of its deep perpendicular lime- 
stonewalls, with their even and seemingly 
sculptured horizontal hnes. 

"The aue irspiring aspect of the cen- 
ote," continued Don Eduardo, "impressed 
me as much as its traditions of human sac- 
rifice and offenngs to the gods. For years 
I had a growing belief that Bishop Landa, 
Father Cogolludo and other Spanish 
chromclers, had reported accurately al- 
though merely from hearsay, the terrible 
religious rites practiced hereuntil the com- 
ing of the conquerors. But my own in- 
stinct on the cióse association of religious 
conceptions of the Mava with physical 
nature was a strong factor in my decisión 
to search for proof of human sacnftce in 
the muddy depth of the cenote. If hu- 
man beings were ihrown mto watery 
graves to win the favor or to avert the 
anger of the deities, 1 reasoned thiswould 
be the logical place of their doom. I 
had seen the cenote under all conditions 

in the flaming sunnse, in the brilliant 
noonday, in the silver moonlight, and al- 



Ways there was the suggestion of solem- 
nity, mystery and tragedy. 

He related the traditions recorded by 
the Spanish priests — the traditions that 
have remained for him to transíate into 
histórica! truth. In the days of Chichen- 
Itza's glory, and up until the very time of 
its dechne under Toltec oppressions, pris- 
oners of war and virgins of flawless love- 
liness were sacriíiced at the cenote. 
From early childhood the maidens had 
beencared forwith physical perfection as 
a goal. Their spintual traming had mar- 
tyrdom for the public good as its ideal. 
In times of national calamity, drought or 
pestiience, the selected victims were led 
in solemn procession down the imposing 
stairway of the great pyramid. The sm- 
ister beating of the death drum, the high- 
pitched flute and the shrill screeching of 
whistle announced their march. 

Waiting for them at the little shrine 
on the brink of the sacred cenote were 
the priests, the dignitaries of the state and 
throngs of the pious. At a signal in the 
ceremony, designed for the deity who 
was crediíed with power in the particular 
emergency, the devoteesflung down their 
most valuable articles of personal adorn- 
ment and other art treasures. Then the 
white robed priests hurled the human sac- 
riflces into the yawnmg water pit, the 
maidens having been mercifully drugged 
with the sacred ambrosia, balche. 

But more merciful than the drug was 
the sustaining hope in each maiden s 
breast that immortal life insfead of death 
lay at the bottom of the cenote. And 
the crowd gazing down into the palé 
green water eagerly expected at least 
one victim to refurn to the surface as an 
omen of a favorable year. 

The decisión to verify these strange 
traditions and to salvage the Maya treas- 
ure was taken by Don Eduardo over20 
years ago. But he was confronted by 
obstacles on all sides. His faith met 
with ridicule from the layman and with 
discouragement from the scientist. The 
scholarly Holmes visiting Chichen-Itza in 
Í895. wroíe of the plan-. 'There has 

been some talk of explormg he áccumü^ 
lations from the bottom of this cenote 
with the expectation of securing works of 
art or other treasures, but the task is a 
most formidable one and will require the 
erection of strong wmdlassesand efficient 
dredging apparatus. It is doubtful if 
promised results warrant the outlay nec- 
essary to carrymg out the work m a 
thorough manner." 

Don Eduardo agreed with Holmes 
that the task was indeed a formidable 
one, especially as the money for the erec- 
tion of "strong windlasses ' and "efíicient 
dredging" was not available. The cen- 
ote measures 150 feet in diameter. The 
limestone wall drops 65 feet from the 
treefringed rim to the surface of the pool. 
And beneath 40 feet of water is a mud 
bed 35 feet deep. Unable to find the 
proper financial support for the expensive 
undertaking, Don Eduardo learned the 
diver's art. Night after night formonths 
he descended in his diving suit, only to 
have his mexperience meet wiih accident 
and, in many instances, narrowly averted 
death. One night his d'ligence was re- 
warded by the discovery of human bones 
which proved tobethoseof girlsbetween 
1 2 and I 6 years of age. This success 
sharpened his enthusiasm, and finally, by 
sheer forcé of determination, he won the 
interest and aid of a wealthy American 
whose patronage is linked with some of 
America's most significan! archaeologiccí 

By 1903 the heavy dredging appar- 
atus had been purchased and installed. 
Shortly after the work was well under 
way, the cranes being operated by hand 
power supplied by the Indians. Almost 
from the flrst the dredging yielded results, 
Quantities of human bones — mostiythose 
of young girls were brought to the sur- 
face, to sustain the theory of sacrifice. 
Gradually, beautiful objects began to 
make their appearance m the scooped up 
silt. TTie assortment included jade, gold, 
copper, ebony, balls of copal, weapons 
ornamented with turquoise mosaic and 



even fragments of lextües of hitherlo un- 
known weaves. 

Most important, according to Don Ed- 
uardo — an opinión he ventures, however, 
as entirely "unofficial" and subject to cor- 
rection from the archaeologists — are the 
jade platas, beanng glyphs and esotenc 
figures upon their highly polishedsurfaces. 
These plates, measuring about 3 by 8 
inches, are engraved with exquisite art, 
and it has been hinted that the designs 
will íurnish clues for the posiíive identifi- 
cation of the vague Maya divinities. 
Among the gold ornaments are elabórate 
pendants and richly carved breast shields. 
The latler, disks of the purest gold and 
the finest workmanship, measure 8 and 9 
mches in díamete-. 

Don Eduardo teüs how the scientists 
who were present at its discovery were 
deeply impressed by a beautifully strange 
sacrificial knife, about 1 4 ¡nchesin length. 
The 8 inch handle is of polished ebony, 
carved in the form of two entwined ser- 
pents biting a flint blade. This discovery 
was made m three sections, one scoop 
bringmg up the blade, with a missmg piece 
near the point, and the next scoop pro- 
ducing the handle. Some days later, to 
the intense joy oí the scientists, the little 
missing piece rewaided their careful ex- 
amination of the mud. Another precious 
obiect brought to the surface was the al- 
most mystic weapon known as the "Vo- 
tive Atlati," or the ceremonial spear 
thrower. By the aid of this device it 
was possible to send a spear twice as far. 
and it thus became an emblem of power, 
and as such is pictured in the ancient 
sculptures fhrouahout the American conti- 
nent. Qyetzalcoatl is depicted m Aztec 
art as holdmg one in his claws, and the 
emblem is found a!l the way from the Es- 
kimo región to Perú, and as far east as 

Four of the treasures, which are ador- 
nrd with turquoise mosaic, have been de- 
scribed in a publication lust issued on this 
art among the ancient Mexicans by Pro- 
fessor Marshall H. Saville. To complete 
his monograph Professor Saville received 

permission to describe these articles and 
to reproduce them pictonally in his book. 
These are the first published pictures of 
discovenes made in the sacred cenote. 
Two of the objects are merely wooden 
fragments which still relam porticns of 
turquoise mosaic decoration. In the cen- 
ter of one is an irregularly shaped and 
thin piece of gold; and from several 
wooden teelh, covered wilh the same 
kind oí mosaic incrustation, Professor 
Saville believes thaí both fragments were 
from a jaguar head or mask. 

The remaining two are fairly complete 
specimens, one being asmallstaff orscep- 
ter, and the olher a wooden rattle, hold- 
ing a tiny ccpper bell. On bcth cbjecls 
bits of mosaic decoraticn re mam. 

In descnbing the Mayan rattle Prc- 
fessf-r SaMJle claims that it is analogous 
to an instrument found in the Mexican 
picfures. "In both of the Sahagun man- 
uscripts, ' he writes, "that of the Real Pe- 
lacio in Madr.d and the one in Florence, 
are representatxns cf ihe ceily Xioe To- 
tee. In the former manuscnpt is fcur.d 
the ñame of the gcd wntten above the 
figure, which is translated 'Xipe, lord cf 
the ccasfland.' He is an earlh deity, 
'our lord the flayed,' fcr he is represented 
wearmg loosely about him a human skin. 
He was the patrón samt cf the goldsmiths 
of the Valley of México, and is said to 
have received special homage frcm the 
people of the Teotilan distnct, the be- 
gmning of the highway of Tabasco. In 
the pictures given by Sahagun, and in 
other códices, he carried alongstaff which 
terminates m a rattle similar to that found 
in the cenote Chichen-ltza." 

It has been claimed that the solidified 
m.asses of copa), used as a sacrificial in- 
censé by the Mayas, contained human 
hearts as well as jade idols. But these, 
more recently discovercd bv Don Edu- 
ardo, and not included in the Peabody 
Muscum collection, have been found to 
endose small India rubber balls, perhaps 
the same used in some ceremonial "pelóla" 
game held in the greal gymnasium with- 
in !ighl of the sacred cenote. 




\X/'" ^^exico solve her greatest nation- 
^ al problem by answering her arch- 
aeologicalriddle ? 

This high hope, in any event, is in- 
spiring the Government's exploration of 
Mitla and the ruins o( Monte Alban, 
the ancient Zapotecan capital, which 
overlooks the modern City of Oaxaca. 
The work, underlaken by Manuel F. 
Gamio, Directoi of Anthropology, aims 
to wrest from Mexico's dead past the 
knowledge that will vitalize her future. 
It is part of the program which he has 
dssigned to make anthropology a leading 
factor in his country's development. 

With the triple visión of scientist, hu- 
manitarian and patriot, Gamio sees Mex- 
ico's Indian problem as a living issue, not 
merely as a thing of the museum or the 
scholany monograph. He would study 
the beginnings of the various peoples 
within the Mexican Republic, as recorded 
bytheir monuments and other vestiges of 
pre-Hispanic culture. in orderto gaindeep- 
er underslanding of their present needs. 

The excavations now under way 
among the mounds and vaulted cham- 
bers on the heights oí Monte Alban are 
revealing significant facts of early Za- 
potecan civiiization. The mounds are 
said to contain the tombs of hve Kings. 
But, what is vastly more important, as 
Gamio himself recently pointed out, is the 
jight that these excavations are throwing 
upon the humble lives being lived today 
in the fertile valley below. 

As we spoke he was making a pre- 
liminary survey of the great courtyard 
that crowns (he terraced "white moun- 
tain." Around him stood members of 
his staff experts in sociology, efhnology, 
iinguistics, folklore, economics, geology, 
agriculture and other fields of research. 

In the group were youths just out of col- 
lege and distmguished scientists past mid- 
dle age. But all looked toward the tall, 
slender Director of Anthropology, who 
still in his late thirties, is International 
Presiden! of the American School of Ar- 
chaeology, with an attitude of reverential 
devotion, and all seemed animated by his 
tremendous enthusiasm for the big, ccm- 
mon purpose that lay beyond their imme- 
diate respective endeavors. 

"Mexico's task, " explained Gamio, "is 
no less than the formation of a coherent 
and definite nationality as weW as a true 
fatherland. México is not a unit. It is 
made up of several units. Our popula- 
tion is heterogeneous, not homogeneous, 
The different groups of which it is com- 
posed have diíferent historie antecedenls 
and racial charactenstics. They diííer in 
their material and intellectual culture, and 
in the very expression of their ideas. I 
think I am justiíied insayingthat the pop- 
ulation of México is a conglomeralion of 
little known regional groups. 

"Oaxaca has nothmg in common with 
Chihuahua, ñor the tropical jungles of 
Chiapas with the mountam gorges of 
Guanajualo. México is the linguists 
paradise. There are perhaps thirty big 
divisions of language in the republic today. 
Here in Oaxaca alone there are traces 
of fourteen distinct ianguages. Some of 
these Ianguages differ bcsically havmg no 
more connection structurally than Chínese 
or English. The races present striking phy- 
sical differences. The Zapotecans, for in - 
stance, biologically distinct from the Mayas 
ofYucatan. Our purpose is to stimulate ra- 
cial approximation, the fusión of culture, 
unification of language and the economic 
equilibnum of these various groups m order 
to attain a true national entity. But first we 



musí have a knowledge of racial, cultural 
and Imguistic backgrounds. And we are 
tryíng to understand the ancient Zapote- 
can race, in order that the Zapotecan of 
today, with his problems and needs, may 
be more mtelligible." 

What Gamio is attempting in Oaxaca 
he has already accomplished m the Val- 
ley of Teotihuacan, where stands the 
Pyramid of the Sun, the Cheops of Méx- 
ico. In July, 1917, after ten years of 
fruitful work among Mexico's archaeolo- 
gical sections — a work that proceeded 
almost unmterruptedly throughout the 
governmental changes and uncertamties 
of the penod — Gam.o founded the De- 
partment of Anthropology of the De- 
partment of Fomento y Agricultura and 
at once began the regional study of the 
Teotihuacan \''alley. His program call- 
ed for a complete survey of the popu- 
lation, a study of the present physical 
conditions of the terntory and of the as- 
pects of civilization which it presented 

His excavations in the ancient archae- 
ological City of Teotihuacan led to the dis- 
covery of the famous Temple of Quet- 
zalcoatl, or the Citadel. He made ex- 
haustive studies of the property, natural 
and artificial production, and habitability 
of the entire valley, and in a bnlliant work, 
entitled "La Población del Valle de 
Teotihuacan," was able authoritatively 
to indícate last year the most feasi- 
ble means for the physical, intellectual, 
social and econcmic development of the 
Teotihuacan Indians. Already, it is 
claiined, conditions of life among these 
people are beginnmg to reflect marked 
impiovement There are rapidly matur- 
ing plans for the revival of ancient indus- 
tries in the región, adapted to present 
commercial requirements and aided by 
modern, labor saving methods. With 
the prospect of the manufacture of cera- 
mies and pottery after archaeological de 
signs. the weaving of textiles and the pro- 
duction of adobes, bricks. tiles and other 
clay objects, there looms a new pericdof 
prosperity for Teotihuacan. 

Gamio insists that a very large portion 
of Mexico's population is still leading an 
archaeological life and that his country s 
failure to reach its highest development 
has been due to thedisregard of this fun- 
damental fact by the "ruling clasíes."' 

"We must reckon," hemainlains,"with 
the illogical, foggy mode of fhought 
characteristic of Indian tribes who still 
live in the neolilhic age, like the Seriand 
the Papago of the north, the Maya of 
the región of Quintana Roo and several 
other groups m the tensof thousands; and 
with the pre-Hispanic concepts of millions 
of Indians and Mestizos who retain in 
their stagnant, silent and relircd existence 
the most profuse, varied and interesting 
folklore to be found on the conlment." 

The whole problem, the Director of 
Anthropology points out. has been com- 
plicated by the sudden arrestmg of ar- 
chaeological culture withcut the provisión 
of any substitute except slavery. The 
governmental chaos that has stained lor.g 
stretches of Mexican histcry is, accord:ng 
to Gamio, merely the inevitable result of 
"the making by governing minorities of 
modern laws to their own liking and ad- 
equatc to their own needs, and expecting 
a backward Indian civilizafion to adjust 
itself all at once to these advanced lawf, 
leaping across four centurics." 

In commenting upon theignorance that 
had so long existed in Mexico's ofíicial 
circles regarding the Indian and his prob- 
lems, Gamio relates how he once went 
to President Carranza for permissicn to 
inaugúrate some work "of vital importance 
to the Indians." * "But, my dear 

boy," replied Don Venustiano with pater- 
nal gravity, "what are you talking about> 
We have no Indians! " "Of course we 
haven't in these norlhern states where you 
have lived, " answered Gamio, who then 
proceeded to enüghten the "First Chief " 
upon the most sericus problem cf hisgov- 

If the golden hope that Gamio is hold- 
ing out to his naticn beccmes a reality, it 
will be primaiily becanse of the develop- 
ment of Mexico's embryolic things. His 



surveyof thelndianpopulation, which will 
extend gradually over the whole repub- 
lic, will deftnitely ascertain conditions and 
needs. Naturally, these economic needs 
will diífer as geographical conditions and 
biologic types difter. In one section the 
remedy for distress may be catite; in an 
other crops; in still another, facilities for 
arts and crafts. In his ultímate aim of 
co-ordinating the various cultures to the 
end of a strengthened nationalism he !s 
searching for tribal similaiities — for like- 
nesses upon which to build thesolid struc- 
ture of common interest. His plan calis 
for the study of such considerat.ons as 
what clothes the Indians wear, their social 
customs, whether or not they make use 
of the pueblo organization, what expres- 
sion of culture they give through art. In 
other words, he is trying to find the rudi- 
ments that are truly, essentially Mexican, 
which may be adapted to the age and, 
at the same time, answer the aspiraticns 
of Indians. 

It was in h;s boyhood, while workmg 
on his father's hacienda in southeastern 
México, that Gamio's visicn of national 
unily came to him in a very dramalic way. 
Sitting one day by a stream in the mídst 
of a semi tropical forest, he saw a naked 
Indian pass by in a canee. Gamio called 
to him in Spanish. Bnt the Indian did 
not make the slightest response. Gamio 
called again, but the Indian's face re- 
mained perfectly stolid. With a boy's 
persistency, he shouled at the top of his 
voice, yet the Indian remained motion- 
less. At last, almost frantically, Gamio 
called in the Indian dialect of the place, 
and he received an immediate answer. 

Curiousabout thisstrangeconduct, Ga- 
mio. pleading in the dialect, finally drew 
from the Indian the reason for hissilence. 
He learned that his companion spokeflu- 
ent Spanish, but that he had taken a sol- 
emn oath never to use the longue of the 
conqueror again. Ae reason he gave the 
brutal freatment he had received from his 
Spanish speaking employers in one of the 
larger coast cities. In addition, he had 
withdrawn in defiant hatred into the re- 

cesses of the junglein order lo forget civ- 
ilization and to livelhe most primitiveÜfe 

This glimpse into the Indian soul, with 
its burning consciousness of wrong under 
a mask of passiveness. has been Gamio's 
inspiration through his years of sludy and 
labor, as it is today on the verge of the 
realizaficns of his hopes. 

It is this soul — as it was at the height 
of its freedcm, and before it shrank in 
íorrow and despaír benealh cenlunes 
of oppression^ — that Gamio secks in the 
ruins of Mente Alban. It is the soul, 
he maintains, ihat México must fan into 
normal expression before it can reach its 
highest naticnal destiny. 

GiFTS, Bequests and Awards i 

Pulitzer Prizes Announced. 

The 1923 awards of the Pulitzer pri- 
zes in journalism and letters and of the 
traveling scholarships ofíercd annually have 
been announced by the advisory board 
of the Cclumbia School of Journalism. 

Alva Johnston, of the New York 
Times, was awarded the $1,000 prize 
for the best example of a reporter's work 
during the year; William Alien White, 
editor of the Gazelte, Emporia, Kansas, 
$5 00 for the best editorial; and the Mem- 
phis Commercial Appeal, Memphis, 
Tenn., the $500 go!d medal for the most 
disinterested and meritoricus public ser- 
vice rendered by a newspaper. 

The judges selected "One of Ours,' 
by Willa Cather, for the $1,000 prize 
for the American novel published dunng 
the year which presented the wholescme 
atmosphere of American life, and the 
highest standard of American manners 
and manhood, 

Charles Warren was given the $2,000 
for the best book on the history of the 
United States for his book "The Supreme 
Court in United States History. " The 
$ 1 ,000 prize in biography was awarded 
to "The Life and Letters of Walfer H, 
Page," Burton H. Kendrick, and the 



$ 1 ,000 pnze for the original play per- 
formed in New York which best repre- 
sented the educational valué and power of 
the síage in raising the standard of good 
moráis, good taste and good manners, w as 
awarded to "Icebound, " by Owen Davis. 

Edna St. Vincent Millay was named 
the winner of the $ 1 ,000 prize for the 
best volume of verse published during the 
year by an American author. 

Three awards of travelmg scholarships 
valued at $1,500 each, offered to grad- 
uates of the Columbia School of Journal- 
ism who pafsed their examinations with 
the highest honor and otherwise were 
found most deserving, to permit each to 
spend a year m Europe studying the so- 
cial, political and moral conditions of the 
people and the character and prmciple of 
the European press, were awarded to 
Geneva Bertha Seybold, Topeka, Kans.; 
Lee Mills Mernman, Chicago: Roswell 
Sessons Britton, Hoochow, China. Al- 
ternates for this award were: Paul Fried- 
enchson, Clinton, lowa; Charles Ruggles 
Smith, Cambridge, Mass., and Josephine 
Lulu Chase, Bakersfield, Calif. 

Annual scholarship valued at $1,500 
to the student of music in America 
deemed the most talented and deserving 
so that he may continué h's studies with 
the advantage of Europcan instruction, 
was awarded to Winter Watts, Brook- 
lyn, N, Y., for a suite for orchestra entit- 
led "Etchings," and for a dramatic bai- 
lad for voice a^d orchestra entitled "The 
Vinegar Man." 

Henry Henscfie, Chicago, a student 
in the National Academy of Design 
Schools, was awarded an annual scholar- 
ship valued at $1,500, offered to theart 
student in America should he be certified 
by the National Academy of Design 
with which the Society of American Ar- 
lists has been merged, as the most prom- 
¡sing and deserving. 

No awards were made in the journal- 
ism group of the $ 1 ,000 prize offered 
for the best history of the services ren- 
dered tothe publicby the American press 
during the preceding year and the $500 

pnze offered for best cartoon published 
m the United States dunng the year. 

The Memphis Commercial Appeal 
was given the $300 medal for "its cour- 
ageous attitude in the publication of car- 
toons and the handling of news in refer- 
ence to the Ku Klux Klan," the announce- 
ment stated. 

The editorial which won the award 
for Wiiliam Alien White was entitled 
"To an Anxious Friend." and appeared 
in the Empona Gazette, July 21, 1922. 
The jury found that the editorial excelled 
m clearness of style: sounu reasoning and 
its power to influence public opinión in 
the right direction. 

Mr. Johnston, selecled for the $1 ,000 
pnze for the best sample of reporters 
work, won the award with his reports of 
the proceedings of the convention of the 
American Association fcr tne Advance- 
ment of Science, held in Cambridge, 
Mass., December 27 to 30, 1922. 

The works of Edna St. Vincent Mil- 
lay, which won for her the $ 1 ,000 
award for the best volume of verse, in- 
clude the "Bailad of the Harp Weaver," 
"A Few Figs from Thistles," eight 
poems m "American Poetry" and a 
volume entitled "A Miscellany." 

^Ir. Watts, awarded the music schol- 
ship, is 37 years oíd and a gradúate of 
the Inslitute of Musical Art. He has 
studied painting and architecture as well 
as music and has wntten and conducted 
incidental music for several plays. The 
jury which selected him was compcsed 
of Prof. Daniel Gregory Masen, Prcf. 
Walter Henry Hall and Frank Dam- 
rosch,and stated that he has had instruc- 
tion in organ and voice, both in America 
and Italy, and has made an extensive stu- 
dy of composition and has taught theory. 

The awards originally were reccm' 
mended by juries composed of three 
members and were formally adopted by 
the advisory board of the Columbia 
School of Journalism. 

The prizes will be pre«ented in con- 
nection with the commencemenl exer- 
cises at Columbia Lniversity. 




Age of the Piltdown Man. 

After microscopic examination of the 
Piltdown jaw and numerous specimensof 
jaws of apes and of early man, Dr. Ales 
Hrdlicka has come to the conclusión that 
the Piltdown jaw is much older than the 
skull found near it and to which it had 
been supposed to belong. He places 
the Piltdown jaw much older than the 
Heidelberg jaw or that of any other Eu- 
ropean cave man. He found that the 
Piltdown man did not connect with any 
of the living forms of anthropoíd ape. 
Dr. Hrdlicka intímales that man may 
have evolved altogether in western Eu- 
rope mstead of Central Asia. 

Colorado Historical and Natural History Society. 

Considerable work of note was accom- 
plished dunng the biennium covered by 
the published report of the State Histori- 
cal and Natural History Society of Col- 
orado. The report asks for an annual 
appropnation from the state of $25,000, 
of which about $1 5,000 is to be for sal- 
aries of the staff and $5,000 for archaeo- 
logical research. J. A. Jeancon, curator 
of archaeology and research, formerly a 
residen! of Santa Fe, makes a brief sur- 
vey of the work in Archuleta county, 
Colorado, of which he had charge. A 
special plea is made for more generous 
m;ans for pjbhcation of historical mate- 
rial accumulated. The Society has a 
membership of 650 and m addition to 
the state appropnation reports receipts, 
mostly from membership dues, of more 
than $6,100. 

Carnegie Institution Report. 

The report of the president of the Car- 
negie institution for 1922, emphasizes 
the work of publication which included 
24 volumes of 6605 pagf s printed at a 
cost of $95,000. During the past year 
he Institution has attempted to make 
orne of the refults of recent researches 
available to invrsiigators and intereslcd 

citizens through the médium of carefully 
prepared and illustrated lectures. These 
included Dr. S. G. Morley's lecture on 
recent discoveries in the field of early 
American archaeology in Guatemala. 
Dr. J. N. Rose marked the completion 
of a monograph on the cactus group by 
presenting the general results secured in 
this study of adaptation of a group of 
plants to the peculiar conditions of semi- 
arid regions in the western hemisphere. 
The president states incidentally: "It is 
also of much importance to us in the near 
future to expand considerably our pro- 
gram of studies in the field of Middle 
American Archaeology." In the past 
year $19,500 were available fcrarchae- 
ological work out of a total of more than 
$1,509,920 granted for research work. 
The total receipts for the year, however, 
were only $1,345,530, and the report 
says: "In every phase of research under- 
taken, either directly by the Institution or 
jointly with other organizations, it would 
be possible to spend with profit consider- 
able sums beyond those now available." 
The report prints a full page engravmg 
of the late Dr. Alfred Goldsborough 
Mayor, director of the Department of 
Marine Biology, to whcm, as well asto 
Professor J. C. Kapteyn, Research As- 
sociate in Astronomy, who died June 1 8, 
1922, tribute is paid In Memonam. 



Santa Fe Society: 

A. Gusdorf, John K. Stauffer, El 
Paso Public Library, Geo. H. Robinscn, 
Miss Rose Dougan, R. D. Johnson. 

New México Society: 

G. J. Waller, John H. D. Blanke, 
Geo. T. Colé, Mrs. Anna F. Johnson, 
H. O. Bursum, E. A. P. Newcomb, Mrs. 
J. F. Pearce, Robert M. Zingg, Mrs. 
E. Caesar, Mrs. C. E. Perkins, C. J. 



Notable Gift to San Diego Museum 

From the San Diego Union of May 16. 

I "WO gifts, the most important ever re- 

ceived by the San Diego Museum, 
were presented to the directors of the or- 
ganization yesterday by Mr. and Mrs. U. 
S. Grant, Jr. One of the gifts was the 
library of Gen. U. S. Grant, given to the 
general by the citizens of Boston, and 
the other was a portrait of President 
Grant, painted by Henry Ulke, during 
the last year of Grants term' 

Director Edgar L. Hewett presiding, 
announced the presentation of the two 
gifts to the board of directors and called 
for recommendations from the committees 
of the board which had had the dona- 
tions under consideration. 

The library committee, composed of 
Erskine J. Campbell, chairman, Hanna 
Vogdes Prentice, Edward L. Hardy, 
Henry P. Newman and Anna M. \\ . 
Connell, through its chairman, made the 
follovv'ing report and recommendations: 

"The library committee begs leave to 
submit the following report upon the li- 
brary presented to the museum by L. S. 
Grant, Jr.: 

"This library was presented to Gen. 
Grant by the citizens of Boston in the 
year 1866. It comprises approximately 
1200 volumes, embracing the works of 
hislory, biography. science, essays, poetry 
and fiction without which no importanl 
library is complete, in editions of the iin- 
est bindingsand illustrations known tothe 
art of bookmaking. It is a collection of 
ihe world's classics of the highest literary 
and artistic valué. When to this is added 
the consideration of its having been the li- 
brary of the great general and president, 
it becomes a priceless possession for this 
Museum and for the people of San Di- 

"\our committee, therefore, recom- 
mends that in accepting this munificent 
gift the board of directors declare ihe 
donor, Mr. Grant, a patrón of the San 
Diego Museum with all the privileges of 
membership for life in the institution." 

Miss Aiice Lee, who, with A. S, 
Bridges, Lyman J. Gage, John Wilüam 
Mitchell and Ernest E. White composes 
the art committee, speaking for that body 

"The committee on the art department 
herewith submits its report and recommen- 
dations with reference to the portrait pre- 
sented to the Museum by Mrs. L. S. 
Grant, Jr. 

"This portrait cf President Grant by 
one of the foremost pcrtrait pamters of 
the time, Henry Llke. was painted in 
1876, the last year of the presidenta oc- 
cupancy of the White House. It has the 
distinction of being the only portrait for 
which Gen, Grant sat while he was pres- 
ident. It repreícnts h m m the full ma- 
turity of his life and at the he'ght of his 

"The portrait was purchased by Mrs. 
U. S. Grant, Jr., from the estáte of the 
arlist and has since remamed in her pcs- 
session. It has long becn the intenlion 
of Mrs. Grant to presexit ihis tocur Mu- 
seum, and the art committee takes this 
occasion to congratúlate the cííicers upen 
the addition of this splendid portrait to 
the valuable possessicns which it holds in 
trust for the pecple cf ihis cily. 

"Your committee reccnrmends that in 
recognilicn of this priceless gift thebcard 
of directers declare Mrs. Grant a patrcn 
of the San Diego Museum and confer 
upon her all the privileges of life mem- 
bership in the institution." 




VOL. XIV. JUNE 1.1923. NO. 11. 

PAUL A. F. WALTER, Editor. 

Piiblished by the Museum of New México 
and the School of American Research 

A Semi-Monthly Review of the Arts ajiii 
Sciences in ihe American Southwest. 

Scnt free to Members of t)ie New Mcxico 

Archaeological Societ> and the Santa l-e 

Society of the Archaeological 


Acceptance for mailing at special rate of 

postage provicled for in Section 1103, 

Act of October 3, 1917, authorizetJ 

Tuly 16, 1918. 

George W. Marston in a brief talk 
congratulating the Museum and the peo- 
pie of San Diego on the acquisilion of a 
library of such vast importance to the 
American peopleand fehcitating Mr. and 
Mrs, Grant upon their generous thcught 
in donating these possessions to the Mu- 
seum, moved the following resolution: 

"That in recognilion of their gifts to 
the San Diego Museum, Mr. and Mrs. 
Uiysses S. Grant, Jr., be declared patrons 
of the San Diego Museum with all the 
privileges of the institulion for hfe." 

Mr. Marston referred vvith greatfeeling 
to the part Mr. Grant has played in the 
life of San Diego and spoke of this occa- 
sion as an effort to express the apprecia- 
lion of every one for Mr. and Mrs. 

Russell C. Alien, chairman of the 
board of the scientific library, in a brief 
speech of congratulation, seconded Mr. 
Marston's resolution. The vote in favor 
of the resolution was unanimous 

in response to the insistent demand, 
Mr. Grant responded wifh a fhort speech 
expressing on behalf of himself and Mrs. 
Grant their pleasurr in transferring to the 
Museum of science and art the treasures 

which they have felt for a long time 
should belong to the people. 

With the difíidence that was charac- 
teristic of his great father, Mr. Grant 
spoke of the gifts which he and Mrs. 
Grant were making as being very pre- 
cious to them and referred to their deep 
gratilude that such a worthy place was 
being prepared for their care and use. 

He gave an account of the portrait 
which Mrs. Grant had purchased from 
the estáte of the artist with herown funds. 
In closing Mr. Grant expressed the ex- 
pectation that the development of the 
Museum was destined to beeven greater 
than that of the city of San Diego 

Mrs. Grant then gave to the officers 
of the Museum a memorándum of articles 
scarcely less valuable than those just pre- 
sented. The articleswere gifts from the 
Mikado of Japan, and from other sources 
equally eminent. These gifts will be 
transferred to the Museum at some time 
jn the future. 

Director Hewctt referred to the occa- 
sion as one which had been carried out 
in the spirit that would have been most 
acceptable to the quiet, modest presidenl 
whc had taught the American people 
that great achievement and great humil- 
ity may go hand in hand, and upon whom 
they had conferred every honor within 
their power. He referred to the distinc- 
tions just conferred upon Mr. and Mrs. 
Grant as of small importance to them, but 
of immense importance to the institution 
which was being built for the people of 
San Diego, for the reason that it would 
forever link with its early developments 
ñames which through all the future the 
people of San Diego would be proud to 
claim as among their citizens while the 
city was laying the foundations for its fu- 
ture life and culture. 

Attention was called to some of the 
special treasures of the library, works that 
thousands look back upon as having fur- 
nished the inspiration to the sludy of his- 
tory, science and art. Among those par- 
ticularly pointed out were the sets of Au- 
dubon's "Birds of North America" and 



"Qyadrupeds of North America, " con- 
taining the famous hand-colored piales 
which now place them beyond pnce; 
the works of all the statesmen of the ear- 
ly years of the regublic, such as Hamil 
ton, Jefferson, Madison, Adams and 
Franklin: all of the world's greatest his- 
tories. Motley, Hallam, Macauley, Carl- 
yle, Hume and Grote; the great bio- 
graphies of Napoleón, Wellmgton and 
most of the famous men of modern and 
ancient times; the works of the leading 
es8ayists on history, politics, art and 
science; complete sets of the great nove- 
lists and poets of all time; and in short 
the classics that go to make up a great 
library of the world's bestliterature. 

One of the particular treasures of the 
colleclion is the Bible on vvhich President 
Grant took the oath of office, in the front 
part of which is pasted the autographed 
letter of the Chief Justice of the United 
States presenting the book to Mrs. Grant 
on the morning after the inauguration. 
By request, Dr. H. B. Bard read the 
1 2 I st psalm which, according to the let- 
ter of Chief Justice Chase, was the pas- 
sage of the book where the lips of Pres- 
ident Grant pressed the book. 

The board room in the California 
building, it was announced, will be kept 
open every aftemoon so that San Die- 
gans and visitors may see the library and 
the portrait. 


The Galleries in May. 

The exhibits in the Museum galleries 
during May took a wide range. In add- 
ition to many of the pictures owned by 
ihe museum, Santa Fe artisls contnbuted 
cf their new and their older work. 
Miss Olive Rush filled an alcove with 
her paintings, the largest exhibit she has 
had as yet in the Museum. One is im- 
pressed with the versatility of her genius. 
Unique is a panel in fresco, "Little Nav- 
ajo", painted on a tile by a method she 
has originated and which yields most 

satisfactory results. Her oils clearly 
show a transition from academic days to 
modernism. "The Pasteiiist ' and "In- 
dian Children at San Xavier" are hne 
examples of Miss Rush's earlier days. 
while "Pecos, Where Men of Oíd 
Build," and "The Mountain" show the 
influence of Santa Fe environment and 
associations. Lovely are "The Mother '. 
and "Arabesque." More bnlliant in co- 
lor 18 the landscape "Peach Blossoms," a 
sprmgtime scene in oíd Santa Fe. Miss 
Rush is equally as happy in her water 
colors, "Hillside in New México ' being 
an especially good example. Stnking is 
a large batik "The Capture" and most 
ambitious"Food Bearers to the Dancers" 
a symbolic interpretaticn of anincident in 
the Shalako Dance. Interesting is ihe 
contrast of treatment in another interpre- 
tation of the Shalako Dance by Gus- 
tave Baumann, which is given the place 
of honor in the alcove opposite. The 
latter is a puré decoration in subdued 
tones and as poetic as it is altogether 
lovely in conception and e.xecuticn. 
Mr. Baumann exhibits m the same alcove 
a number of his famous color wood 
block prints, including his latest, "The 
Green Gate." Intfrestmg is the series of 
prints showing the successive stages or a 
color print. B. J. O, Nordfeldt is given 
several a'coves, one to his paintings, the 
latest from his brush, and parts of two 
olhers for a display of hisetchings. The 
latter collection is of special significance 
for it covers his work from early days in 
New York and San Francisco to the 
prints produced in Santa Fe. Most vis- 
itors express preference for the beauly cf 
the early work, but artists are emphatic 
in their admiraticn of the vigor and more 
untrammeled expression of the Santa Fe 
etchings. The paintings are in Nord- 
feldt s flnest modern manner and include 
large portrait grcups, landscapes, ar.d such 
somber canvasses as "The Penitentes." a 
representalicn of the Penitente Golgolha. 
Somehovv, Nordfeldt succeeds in trans- 
ferring to canvas something of ihe «piril 
of the Pueblo ceremonial in his "Tablita 



Dance," although it vvould be difílcuU to 
explain just how. In the adjoining al- 
cove Joseph G. Bakos exhibits his matur- 
er work which is evidence that "he has 
arrived" in an artistic way. Hepaintsm 
the modern way and, like Nordfeldt, ap- 
plies his pigments flat. Thus also F. G. 
Applegale, whose work is given the next 
alcove. Mr. Applegate has imaginalion, 
and there is a reminder of Nicholas Roe- 
rich and symbolism in his pictures which, 
too, deal wilh New México landscape 
and hfe. Dolores Lietze gives the Mu- 
seum the first exhibit of her paintings. 
She IS striving at an artistic interpretation 
of New México that will no doubt place 
her in the front ranks of the women paint- 
ers oí the Southwest. It detracls noth- 
ing fromthe interest in her pitcures, some 
artist íticklers to the contrary notwith- 
standing, that she gives her painfingsmel- 
lifluous Spanish tilles that place the spec- 
talor en rapport wilh her mocd and 
theme. Portraits that are rugged, still 
Hfe which is unusual in its treafment and 
landscape indicate thewiderange ofMiss 
Lieíze's ambition, Olaf Emblem exhib- 
its a number of highly colored, sunny 
landscapes of the Southwest that fairly 
scintillate. Altogether, the May exhib- 
its would do credit to any gallery even in 
the large art centers. In fact, exhibits 
by such a group as Nordfeldt, Bakos, 
Applegate, Baumann, and the others 
would be deemed highlysignificant of the 
trend of modern art. 


Oíd Santa Fe and Rcundabcut. 

It is some years now that the hrst 
edition of "Oíd Santa Fe and Rounda- 
bout" set a standard for railroad publi- 
city that many other folders and bcoklets 
since then have sought to attain. It was 
the idea of the late F.. P. Ripley, presi- 
dent of the A. T. and S. F., that rail- 
road publicity should be on an mtensive 
scale and localized as much as possible. 

It was at his suggestion that Colonel 
Ralph E. Twitchell and the writer plan- 
ed the first edition of "Oíd Santa Fe and 
Roundabout." And it proved so íuc- 
cessful that it has been printed m manjr 
editions and by the tens of thousands of 
copies. In the latest edition just from 
press, Dr. Charles F. Lummis, the mas- 
ter publicist of the Southwest, wntes the 
story, while the splendid pictures are from 
photographs by local artists. The forly 
page folder is beautifully printed and 
most altractive in its embellisbments, 
makeup and typography. A good out- 
line map of Santa Fe and vicinify is the 
centerpiece around which are grouped 
nine charming photographs of life and 
scenes in forest, mountain and desert. 
The text of Dr. Lummis has literary 
quality which lifts it above ordinary pub- 
licity and helps to make "Oíd Santa Fe 
and Roundabout" about the finest kind 
of publicity which can be given a com- 

Another Play by Mts. Bloom. 

With the historie hegira of the Piro 
and Tampiro people from the Salme 
pueblos in the Manzanos before 1 680, 
as the background, Mrs. Lansmg Bloom 
has written a stirring tragedy in ihree 
acts. The scene is laid at Abo whose 
mission is still a noteworlhy sight some 
distance from the Abo HighwayinNew 
México. The drama opens in the Caci- 
que's house, "Running Stream" wife of 
the cacique, first conversing wilh her 
youngest daughter and then wilh "White 
Flower" the heroine, whose wedding is 
to take place in a few days to "Gray 
Wolf," the son of the war captain. 
The dialogue reveáis the fear which has 
taken possession of the people of the 
pueblo who have been harrassed by the 
Apaches, "The Red Death." The cli- 
max of the first act comes when "White 
Flower" is carried into captivity by an 
Apache. In the second act messengers 
announce that the Tampiros have aban- 
doned their great pueblo of Tabira, or 



belter known, although erroneously, as 
Gran Quivera. "White Flower " returns 
bereft of reason. She has escaped the 
Red Death but every effort to restore 
her mind proves unavailing. The 
people of Abo also decide to leave 
their home, thus making it one of the 
"Cities that Died of Fear. ' "White 
Flower" momentarily regaining her rea- 
son, refuses to go and "Gray Wolf " re- 
mains with her. She slays herself fall- 
ing dead into his arms. The third 
brief act is a batt[e scene in which Gray 
Wolf kills ruthlessly until an Apaches 
tomahawk feils him and he expires with 
both arms outstretched to the sky cryíng 
out in his last agony; "While Flower, 
wait !" The author's intímate know- 
ledge of Pueblo custom and thought, 
her vivid visualization of local color, 
knowledge of dramatic technique and 
Valúes, together wilh the tenseness of the 
theme, have resulled in an artistically 
rounded piece of work, as lofty as a 
Greek tragedy in its directness and inevi- 
tability. The only fault, if any, is in the 
harshness of the play's title "The Ways 
of Extermination". It is hoped that the 
play can be given in the Museum audi- 
torium during the Fiesta. 

A Prilgrimage tí Taos. 

The North American number of The 
World Traveler, publishes an illustrated 
article by Julia CrisweII under the head- 
ing: "A Pilgrimage to Taos. " It v/as 
during th^ San Gerónimo Fiesta that the 
writer visited the pueblo and her de- 
scription is coloful and ively. 

"The International Studio'' for May. 

More superbly illusirated even than 
previous numbers the May issue of "The 
International Studio" is a delight to the 
eye. The reproductions in color, in lint 
and in black or white, represent the high- 
est as yet achieved in process print. Eight 
of the prize winners at the annual exhibit 
of The National Academy of Design are 
printed on special heavy paperadmirably 

visualizing the gradations of shadow and 
the draftsmanship even though lacking 
the necromancy of color. Theyare"The 
Expulsión," by Eugene Francis Savage, 
awarded theThomas B. Clarke prize and 
the Saltu? medal; "Flemish Tapestry," 
by Dinez Carlsen, given the Hallgarten 
$200 prize; "Blue and Silver," by Jean 
McLane, awarded the !saac N. May- 
nard $100 prize; "BytheUpper Lock," 
by John F. Folinsbee, bestowed the Hall- 
garten $300 prize; "A Naturalist," by 
Fred Nagler, given the Hallgarten $ 1 00 
prize; "vSnow and Colder," by G. Glenn 
Newell, which received the Speyer Me- 
morial pnze; "Early Winter," by Paul 
King, the winner of the Altman $ 1 000 
prize for landscapes; "Mid Winter," by 
Hobart Nichols, recipient of the Altman 
$100 prize for landrcapes. "Artin Mis- 
souri s Capítol," reproduces the series of 
histoncal muráis, including that of "At- 
tack on the Village of St. Louis by the 
Indians," by O. E. Berninghaus of the 
Taos Society. "Japan's Color Print Re- 
vival' is accompanied by íeveral fxcei- 
lent reproductions on special paper. The 
text takes a wide range as do the pie- 
tures and maintains the interest and high 
standard which ihis attractive magazine 
has set for itself. 

*'.Asia" for June. 

Archaeological theme? are again prom- 
inent in this number of "Asia," the cover 
itself being "after an Egyptian Grave 
Stele" in the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art. "The Third Asiatic Expedition" 
is a continuation of the running account 
of the American IMuseum by Roy Chap- 
man Andrews. Dr. Charles Breasted, 
of the Archaeological Institute of Ameri- 
ca, writes under the title "Over the 
Threshold of Tut-ankh-Amen's Tcn:b." 
The magazine is beaulifully illuílratcd. 

June "Poetry," 

The June issue of "Poetry" is a lyric 
number and presents the work of some 
thirty writers. Whether due to thefem- 

I 72 


porary new editorship or the universali- 
ty of the themes, there is an absence of 
the local color which has been a charac- 
tenstic ot "Poetry." There have been 
but few issues in the past three oí more 
years ihat did not, for instance, publish 
some lines that were steeped in the spirit 
and atmosphere of the Southwest. True, 
there are verses by Alfred Kreymborg 
entitled "Italian Stream;" a "Bretón 
Song" by Abbie Huston Evans; and 
"Japanese Brush Strokes " by Jun Fujita, 
but they all seem remote from the pulsing 
life of America generally reflected in 
"Poetry. " There is a scathing criticism 
of Witter Bynner's "A Book of Plays ' 
by Cloyd Head, who says among other 
things: "These plays are neither for the 
mind ñor hearl; they are for the nerves. 
They are not dramas; they are not litera- 
ture. There is no reality in them " 
The most ambitious poem m the issue is 
by "H. D. ' under the title of "Thetis," 
but it too is lacking in those things which 
have made "Poetry" notable among the 
host of mmor publications devoted to verse. 
"That the present trend is away from 
unrhymed and unmetrical verse cannot 
be denied," says one writer, Jessica Nel- 
son North, in this issue. She continúes: 
"As though the gift of utter freedom had 
been too bewildering, the herd of poets 
begins to seek some voluntary impnson- 
ment." "The cause of the New Poetry 
is dead," she says. "It died peacefully 
for lack of adversaries, though there sur- 
vives the occasional Bryan to give it 
posthumous publicity." And as proof 
one might cite this issue of "Poetry." 


Sharps return from Egypt. 

Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Sharp have reiur- 
ned from a Mediterranean tour which 

included Egypt. Mr. Sharp has taken 
possession of his home and studio at Taos 
for the summer. 

Ufers in Taos again. 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter Ufer are at home 
again at Taos after a wmter spent in 
New York and Chicago. 

Blumenschein Resumes Taos Residence. 

E. L. Blumenschein aiter a winter in 
his home in Brooklyn N. Y., is again at 
Taos. Mrs. Blumenschein and daughfer 
will arrive as soon as the latter has fin- 
ished her school term m the east. 


Death of Eminent Research W:rkers. 

Dr. John Venn, president of Caius 
College, Cambridge, Eng., who gamed 
renown in archaeological research work, 
died last month at the age of 89 years. 
Dr. Charles Emmanuel Forsyth Major, 
F. R. S., famous as a paleontologist, 
died recently in his 79th year. Ernest 
Watson Vredenburg, known for his work 
on the paleontology of India, died, aged 
53 years. Frederick William Haimer, 
aged 89 years, died just after complet- 
ing the last píate for his "Monograph of 
the British Pliocene Molluska, which 
has been in process of publication sincc 
1914 by the Paleontographical Society. 
The deceased was the father of the direr- 
tor of the Brit sh Museum. 


Appointed Director of Museum and Library, 

Professor T. H. Pardo de Tavera of 
the University of the Philippines has been 
appointed director of the Philippine Li- 
brary and Museum.